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eighteen, like those who attended the rhetorical schools,  but
gradually there came into being a fellowship of older men who
associated with him for many years and devoted themselves to
philosophical pursuits under his guidance and inspiration.    At
his death the headship passed to his nephew Speusippus, whom
he had nominated his successor and to whom he had bequeathed
his garden and his possessions in trust for the school.   He in his
turn handed on his charge to Zenocrates;  and so was begun a
succession of scholarchs,  or heads,  either nominated by the
preceding scholarch or elected by the school, who kept alive the
Platonic tradition.   In this way was established the first permanent
institution for the promotion  of the  higher learning.    The
example set by Plato was followed by Aristotle,   After Plato's
death in 347 B.C., Aristotle withdrew from the Platonic company
and spent some years away from Athens.   After acting for three
years as the tutor of Alexander the Great, he returned and founded
a school of his own in connection with the Lyceum, in company
with his friend and successor Theophrastus in 335 B.C.    This
school achieved a great success, as is evidenced not only by the
output of scientific work like Aristotle's own by his immediate
successors, but by the tradition that in the time of Theophrastus
the students in attendance numbered two thousand.  A generation
later (in 308 and 306 B.C. respectively) the Stoic and the Epicurean
schools were established by Zeno and Epicurus on lines somewhat
similar to the Academy and the Lyceum,   These two schools
were also outgrowths of the philosophical movement that began
with Socrates, and started from the same general view of the best
life being based on knowledge or insight;  but coming as they
did when the national decadence was further advanced and the
communal ethics of the Platonists and the Aristotelians had lost
much of their power of appeal, they developed an individualistic
philosophy which was in closer accord with the spirit of the
times, and drew away a great number of disciples from the
older schools.     As a result of their activity, logic and meta-
physics, though still prominent in the discussions of the schools,
became subordinate to the more practical problems of personal

These four schools of learning continued to exist as centres of
intellectual life in Athens for several centuries, developing their
bwa traditions under successive scholarchs, and contending